1. Definition of Salat (معني الصلاة)
The dictionary meaning of salat is Doa, blessing and seeking forgiveness. The terminology meaning of ‘Salat’ is to perform the greatest prayer of forgiveness of a faithful slave before Allah according to the ways given by the Islamic shari‘ah, which starts with Takbeer-i-tahreemah and ends with Salam.
2. Obligation of salat and its number of rak ‘ ats
(فى فرضية الصلاة وعدد ركعاتها)
Just after being prophet, the salat had been Farz. This was for the Fajr and ‘Asr only by two and two rak‘ats ( qurtubi). As Allah says, وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِبْكَارِ and you celebrate praises of your Lord in the evening (before sunset) and in the morning (before sunrise). ‘A-yesha (R) said that the salat in beginning was of two rak‘ats in dwelling and in journey. Besides, the Tahajjud salat was ‘additional’ (نَافِلَةً) for the prophet (sm) (Isra 17/79). The sahabis also used to say night salat regularly to follow Him. Then at the night of Mi‘raj the five times of daily salat have been ordained.  These are : Fajr, Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib and ‘Esha. Except these, there is Farz salat of jum‘ah, which is to be said at the noon of the day of jum‘ah in a week.  After saying jum‘ah, the Zuhr would not be said. As because the jum‘ah is the substitute of Zuhr.
There are 17rak‘ats Farz salat of five times in a day & night and 15 rak‘ats in the day of jum‘ah and 12 or 10 rak‘ats of Sunnat-i-Muakkadah. Such as : (1) Fajr : 2 rak‘ats sunnat , then 2 rak‘ats Farz (2) Zuhr : 4 or 2 rak‘ats sunnat, then 4 rak‘ats Farz and then 2 rak‘ats sunnat (3) ‘Asr : 4 rak‘ats Farz (4) Maghrib : 3 rak‘ats Farz, then 2 rak‘ats sunnat (5) ‘Esha : 4 rak‘ats Farz, then 2 rak ‘ats sunnat, then at the end one rak‘at of Vitr.
In the jum‘ah 2 rak‘ats are Farz. Before it, 2 rak‘ats of Tahiyatul Masjid in minimum aresunnat after the entrance into the mosque before sitting and after the jum‘ah 4 or 2 rak‘ats are sunnat. Allsalats above are fixed by the regular practice of the Prophet (sm) and proved by the saheeh hadeethes,  which are stated in related chapters of this book.
3. Importance of salat (أهمية الصلاة)
(1) Immediately after recitation of Kalima-i-Shahadat, the place of salat comes in Islam. 
(2) Salat is the best of all prayers of Islam which has been made obligatory in the night of Mi‘raj i.e. nocturnal journey of the prophet upward to Allah.
(3) Salat is the basic pillar of Islam, without which Islam cannot survive.
(4) Salat is only important prayer which would be practised from the age of 7 (seven).
(5) The ruins of salat is akin to the ruins of the Nation as stated in the holy Quran.
(6) The salat is the subject of maximum discussion made in the holy Quran.
(7) Salat is compulsory Ibadat (prayer) for a Mumin (Believer) in all circumstances, which for other Ibadats have not been made.
(8) The rope of Islam which will break first is its Rule and the last to break is Salat. 
(9) After the obliteration of Salat from the Earth, there will be happened the Resurrection.
(10) In the Day of judgement, the first account of the Mumin will be taken of his salat. If the account of salat is proper, then all other ‘Amals (Deeds) will be proper. Otherwise every thing will be meaningless.
(11) Salat is compulsory for five times in a day, which for any other compulsory ibadats have not been made. 
(12) The difference between Mumin and Kafir-Mushrik (Infidels & Polytheist) is Salat. 
(13) The sign of the dweller of Hell is that he will ruin the salat and will be the worshipper of inclination (Mariam 19/59).
(14) Ibraheem (A) had prayed to Allah for Himself and for His offspring to be performers of salat (Ibraheem 14/40).
(15) The last advice of the Prophet (sm) just before his death time was for salat and women folk. 
4. Rulling against the abstainer from salat
(حكم تارك الصلاة)
The person, who abstains from salat wilfully or denies its of being compulsory, is a kafir and Jahannami (the dweller of the Hell). That person is expelled from Islam. But the person who keeps Iman (faith) but abstains from salat, either for anxiety or idleness or performs salat loosely without maintaining proper system, the rules of Shari‘ah for him are as follows:
(a) Allah says, فَوَيْلٌ لِّلْمُصَلِّيْنَ ، الَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَنْ صَلاَتِهِمْ سَاهُوْنَ ، الَّذِيْنَ هُمْ يُرَآءُوْنَ- ‘So, woe for those Musallis (Performers of salat)’. ‘Who are indifferent in their salat’. ‘Who perform it just to show the people (Ma-‘oon 107/4-6).
(b) Allah has called these lazy and phoney Musallis as Hypocrite and Fraudulent. He says.
إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِيْنَ يُخَادِعُوْنَ اللهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَى يُرَاءُوْنَ النَّاسَ وَلاَ يَذْكُرُوْنَ اللهَ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً- (النساء 142)-
‘Verily the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah. but it is He who deceives them. And when they stand up for salat, they stand with laziness. They show men and they do not remember Allah but a little’ (Nisa 4/142). In another place Allah has called them as Fasiq (Evil-doer) and says that He will not accept their salat and contributions (Tawbah 9/53-54).
(c) The Prophet (sm) says, ...‘who does not take proper care of salat, ...that person will accompany with Qaroon, Firaun, Haman or Ubai Ibnu Khalaf in the Day of Judgement’.
The meaning of taking care of salat is to perform correctly the ruku, sijdah and all the Farz and Sunnats with special attention to salat. In explanation to that hadeeth, Hafez Ibnul Qayim (691-751 A.H) says, (1) ‘The person who is away from salat for love of money and wealth, his Resurrection will be with the miser Qaroon, the richest cousin of the prophet Musa (A). (2) One who abstains from salat due to state functions or political anxiety, his Resurrection will be with Pharao, the persecutor King of Egypt. (3) The person who abstains from salat for engagement as a Minister or an Officer, his Resurrection will be with Haman, the Prime Minister of Pharao. (4) The person who abstains from salat due to business or occupation, his Resurrection will be with Ubai bin Khalaf, the polytheist merchant leader of Makkah.
It is needless to say that being accompanied with kafir and polytheist leaders in the Day of judgement means to become the resident of the Hell, though he was a musalli in his life time. Therefore not only abstinence from salat, but if some one fails to perform salat properly with maintaining ruku-sujood duely, he will be dweller of the Hell. (May Allah save us. Ameen!).
(d) To abstain from salat has been declared as the sign of difference between the Mumin & Kafir (believer & infidel) in hadeeth. The honoured Sahabis also considered it as the same. They are the dwellers of the Hell undoubtedly. But if they believe in Tawheed, Risalat and Akhirat with plain heart and do not deny the rules of Halal, Haram, Farz & Wajibs of Islam, and do not commit any Shirk, then they would not be considered as set-aside from Islam and they are not the ever-dwellers of Hell, as who deny the Kalima shahadat. This tipe of muslim though kafir in practice but not in faith. Rather for the blessings of the Kalima and for the cause of recommendation of the last Prophet Muhammad (sm) for the grave sinners, they at last may come back to the Heaven by the grace of Allah. But they would be called there as ‘Jahannami’ (اَلْجَهَنَّمِيُّوْنَ),  which will be a very shameful matter.
(e) In the light of various hadeethes, among the scholars of Ahl-i-Sunnat including Imam Malek (93-179 A.H), Imam Shafe‘ii (150-204) and all other scholars of the latter days are of one opinion that, that person is a ‘Fasiq’ (evil-doer) and he must repent. If he does not repent and does not start salat, his punishment will be death penalty. Imam Abu Haneefah (80-150) says, ‘he should be given exemplary punishment and he should be confined to the prison until and unless he says his prayer’. Imam Ahmad bin Hambal (164-241) says, ‘the person even after he is invited to salat and he neglects it, and says, I shall not perform salat, and passes the time of salat, then it is mandatory to kill him’. Nevertheless, this is the duty of an Islamic government. The Salat of Janazah (the funeral prayer) of that person should not be performed by an Imam of the mosque or by a respected Alim. As because the prophet (sm) did not say Salat of Janazah of a person who did a petty larceny (of about twoDirhams) from Ghanimat (the war spoils) and of a killer of himself. But he made order others to say his Janazah.  Now it is easily understandable, what would be the behaviour of the Muslim society with those who abstain from salat, an indispensable ordinance of Allah, the almighty.
5. Merits of salat (فضائل الصلاة )
(1) Allah declares, إِنَّ الصَّلاَةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ Verily, the salat prevents Mumin from doing shameless and disliked deeds. (Ankaboot 29/45).
Abul ‘A-liah says, it does not called as salat if there disappeared three things: (1) devotion (الإخلاص)which enjoines him to do virtuous deeds (2) fear of Allah (الخشية) which forbids him from evil (3) reciting the Quran (ذكر القرآن) which have directed him to good & bad.  Abu Hurairah (R) said, ‘once a man comes to the Prophet (sm) and says that certain person would pray the night salat and commits theft at the morning. The Prophet (sm) said that the night salat will prevent him soon from the deed you have saying (إِنَّهُ سَيَنْهَاهُ مَا تَقُوْلُ)’.
(2) The Prophet (sm) says, Five times of salat, one Jum‘ah to another and one Ramazan to another are like as fine (kaffarah) for all the sins committed between these, if he refrains from committing grave sins (which is not requited without Tawbah i.e. repentance to Allah).
(3) He also says, ‘if you bathe yourself five times a day in a river running by your house, shall there be any dirt in your body? The comparison of five times salat is just like that. Through it Allah removes all the sins of His slaves.
(4) He says, the person who takes care of salat, for him salat in the Day of Resurrection will serve as light, document and will be the cause of his salvation...
(5) Narrated from Abdullah bin Umar (R) the Prophet (sm) says, when the slave stands in salat, all his sins are presented before. Then it is kept on his head and on his two shoulders. Then when he bends to ruku or goes to sijdah (prostration), all his sins drop down. 
(6) The Prophet (sm) says, (a) the person who regularly performs his salat of Fajr (early morning) and ‘Asr (after noon) shall not go to the Hell. ‘He will enter the Heaven’. (b) The Angels of the day and night assemble during salat of Fajr and ‘Asr. The Angels of the night when rise up to the Heaven Allah asks them, in what condition did you leave my slaves? Though He is well known of everything, the Angels will report that, they had found them in (‘Asr) salat and left them in (Fajr) salat. The (Fajr) salat has been regarded as ‘Mashhood’ in the holy Quran (Isra 17/78). It means that the Angels of both night and day meet together and give witness.  (c) The person who performs Fajr salat, he is under the protection of Allah. If some one wants to snatch away from that protection, he will be thrown into the Hell placing his face downward. 
(7) He says, ‘One who will nicely make his ablution and will perform salat in time, which is ordained by Allah five times daily and will perform ruku and sujood with full of modesty and humbleness, he has a promise for forgiveness by Allah. But Allah has no promise for whom, who will not observe these. If He wishes may pardon him or if He wishes, may punish him.
(8) Narrated from Abu Huraira (R), the Prophet (sm) said that ‘Allah says, the person who will make enmity with one of My beloved slaves, I declare war against him. There is nothing so beloved to Me for seeking My nearness through anothers performance of those which I made Farz (compulsory). Slaves through various additional prayers try to get nearness of Mine, till I love them. Thereafter when I love him, I become his ear with which he hears, become his eye with which he holds, become his leg with which he moves about. If he prays anything to Me, I grant it. If he seeks shelter I give him shelter...
Merits of salat in the Mosque:
(1) The Prophet (sm) says, the most beloved place to Allah is the Mosque and the worst place is the market. 
(2) ‘The person who goes to the mosque in the morning and evening (i.e. in five times daily salat), Allah keeps ready for him the hospitality in the Heaven.
(3) He says, the musalli will earn most virtues who comes from most far from the mosque’. And ‘the musalli will get most reward who comes earlier and waits for Imam and then says salat with Imam’. He says, ‘the first row of jama-‘at as like as the row of Angels. If you know how many the virtues in it, then you would be too hurried for it’.
(4) In the Day of Resurrection, the seven groups of people who will be placed under the shade of ‘Arsh (the all-pervading seat of Allah), of whom one is he, who always hangs his heart with the mosque. Whenever comes out, he returns again.
(5) The Prophet (sm) says that, to say salat in my mosque is thousand times better than to say in another places and the salat in the Masjidul Haram is one lac times better.
This is to note that the hadeeth about to earn five hundred times of virtues in saying salat in a juma‘h mosque, is Za‘eef.
Knowings about the mosque :
(1) The Prophet (sm) says, who builds a mosque for Allah, Allah builds for him a house in the Heaven. But if the mosque is built to create division among the believers, then it will be considered as a mosque of Zerar (ضِرَار) i.e. harmful (Tawbah 9/107). The founders of that mosque will be vicious.
(2) The grave-yard should be far away from the mosque. In the obligatory case, a wall should be made stand between. The mosque should be established in a noise-free and lonely place.
(3) The mosque should be simple and unostentatious. It should not be decorated in excess and full of pomp & splendour. It is forbidden to show any pride with the mosque.
(4) There must follow the Islamic arcitecture coutiously in building the mosque and should never imitate the arcitecture of the houses of worships of the non-muslim in any circumstances.
(5) There was no Mimber (pulpit) in the mosque of the Prophet (sm) in the first time. After some years a three staired wooden mimber was placed there. Extra stairs more than three has been innovated by the Umayyads.
(6) To build the mosque is forbidden nearby the grave and place in which the worship and prostration is used to be done, there which men desire something and make vow there. It is also forbidden to say salat there and to give any kind of help to it. Because these are Shirk and Allah would never pardon the sin of Shirk (without making Tawbah).
(7) It is obviously shirk (polytheism) to write the word ‘Allah’ at one side and ‘Muhammad’ in another side of the mosque. Similarly setting the picture of the moon & star or only star to the qibla-side is also forbidden. The muslim do not worship the word of Allah. But they worship Allah, who is unseen. Who is the creator of the sun, moon, stars and the universe? Who is seated on the ‘Arsh upon the seven skies (Toaha 20/5)? But His knowledge and power is present everywhere. He would see and hear all things of us (Toaha 20/46). He has a shape of His own. But there is none like unto Him (Shoora 42/11).
(8) It is not proper to set up the word of ‘Allah’ and the picture of the holy ka‘ba at the qibla-side and long pillars of fine tyles decorated with the picture of the dome at two sides of the ‘Mihrab’. To make any writing or design on the Mihrab is also not allowed. Molla Ali Qari Hanafi (Rh) comments that to make any external glamour in the mosque is Bid‘at.
(9) To build the ventilator or the grill of the window with the word of ‘Allah’ or ‘Muhammad’ or the ‘Kalima’ is not allowed.
(10) To write ‘Allah’ or ‘Allahu Akbar’ outside the mosque or on the minarate or tomb or engrave the Doa, kalima, Asma-ul husna and the verses of the Quran at the wall or underneath the roof or piece of ‘ghilaf’ of the ka‘ba is not proper to set up in the mosque, as because in the holy mosque of the Prophet (sm) there was nothing of it.
(11) Under the mosque or its outer, no portrait or poster with pictuer of an animal with hafl or full body with its head is not allowed to set up. Because the prophet (sm) says, the angels of blessings would not enter the house in which the picture (of animal) is hung up. 
(12) In the mosque there must be arrangement of Azan & Ibadat regularly.
(13) The toilet and the place of ablution should be arranged with the mosque (separately for male & female).
(14) The mosque and its compound should keep always neat & clean and should keep the place nice and free of troubles.
(15) The ‘Ulama and guests of the mosque should be honoured fully and entertained highly as they are the guests of the house of Allah.
(16) There may be arrangement for female musallis behind the rows of males separately in between the curtain or in the separate floor. As because the female musallis were used to go to the mosque of the Prophet (sm) attending the jum‘ah & jama-‘at with males regularly.  But it is necessary to be safe the situation and the consent of her guardian and she must be free from all kinds of scent.
(17) Not only to build the mosque, but should take full care to cultivate it and there should be regular arrangement of pure religious teaching & training, as it was in the mosque of the Prophet (sm).
Now a days impure & bid‘ati teachings are increasing than the pure religious teachings based on saheeh hadeethes.
Besides to make ceremony of Milad & Drood congragationally with loudest voice and tuning sound is become a regular practice in some mosques. As a result those mosques are converted as the houses of bid‘at in lieu of the houses of Ibadat. All concerned should fear of Allah.
(18) It is not proper to write as ‘Don’t make niyat for sunnat’ or to set up red light in the mosque to prevent the musallis from sayingsunnat. Because after saying Iqamat if he leaves the sunnat and join into the jama-‘at, he would receive full virtues of salat.
(19) The seperate quarters for Imam & Muwazzin should be arranged (if required) with the mosque and there should be arrangement of their living, eating and their honourable livelihood.
(20) Manners of the mosque : (a) To say two rak‘ats of nafl salat for Allah as Tahiyatul Masjid just after when enter the mosque before sitting  and don’t sit directly. (b) Do not speak in loud voice (except in khutba) in the mosque and do not make noise in it. (c) It is not permissible to announce there any notice of missing. (d) It is not allowed to distinct any place in the row for any (except for Imam). So, it is not permissible to lay prayer-mat separately for any musalli. (e) The dignity of all mosques is equal, except the Masjidul Haram, Masjid-i-Nabavi and Masjidul Aqsa. So, one should not go to a big mosque in assumption that the virtues will be enhanced.
(21) The president and members of the mosque committee should always look after the mosque and should take care about its protection and development. Otherwise they will have to explain their liabilities to Allah. They should be fearless followers of the holy Quran & saheeh hadeeth, Allah-fearing and devoted musalli (Tawbah 9/18). They should not indulge any Bid‘at and its performer in the mosque. Because the curse of Allah will be fallen upon them and any virtuous deed of them would not be accepted to Allah. 
Importance and merits of salat in Jama- ‘ at :
(1) The Prophet (sm) said, 25 or 27 times more merits (thawab) achieved for performing salat in the mosque with jama-‘ at (congregational salat) than to perform it alone in the house or market’. And ‘the virtues of salat will increase more and more by increase of musallis in jama-‘at (وَمَا كَثُرَ فَهُوَ أَحَبُّ إِلَى اللهِ)’. 
(2) He said, By Allah! in whose hand lies my life, I like to replace one as Imam and I shall go to burn the houses of those who are absent in jama-‘at.
(3) The Prophet (sm) said (a) Allah and the angels shower blessings on the musallis of 1st row. He says it three times, thereafter says in 4th time, of 2nd row also. In another statement it is said that, of the front rows (عَلَى الصُّفُوْفِ الْمُقَدَّمَةِ). (b) If people would know the vertues of Azan and performance of salat in proper time and in the first row, then they would have made competitions with each other. In the same way if they would know the vertues of Esha and Fajr salat, then they would have attended these two salats even with crawling. (c) He says, when some one performs Esha salat in Jama-‘at, he has performed salat like half of the night, and the person who performs Fajr salat in Jama-‘at, he has performed it like whole of the night. (d) He says, ‘for the hypocrites, there is no salat is troublesome thanFajr and ‘Esha salat. (e) The Prophet (sm) said, who would say salat for Allah in jama-‘at with 1sttakbeer, for 40 days, there would be written for him two freedoms, 1st from the Hell and 2nd from the hypocrisy. Ibnu Hajar said, to avail 1st takbeer is sunnat-i-muakkadah. Salaf-i-Sa-liheen would express their sorrow for 3 days if they would lose 1sttakbeer (التكبيرة الأولى) and for 7 days if would lose the jama-‘at’.
(4) The Prophet (sm) says, three muslims who are in a village or in a slum and do not say their salat in jama-‘at, the Satan will conquer them. As because the wolf used to eat a she-goat which is alone and cut-off.
(5) ‘When a musalli observes his ablution well and steps forward to the mosque for salat only, then for his every step he earns one virtue from Allah and one rank of honour is raised and one sin is obliterated. So long that person engages himself in salat, the angels continue to do Doa for him and say ‘Oh Allah! Shower blessings on him’. ‘Be kind to him’. So long he does not speak, the angels say more, Oh Allah! pardon him, accept repentance of him. 
(6) When Iqamat of jama-‘at is heard then there is no other salat is permissible, except that very Farzsalat. So it is not allowed to say sunnat after the Iqamat of the Fajr Jama-‘at, which is in vogue. But will say it just after the end of Jama-‘at.
(7) The musalli will have to join the Jama-‘at in any condition it is recieved and to do same as to follow the Imam. The Prophet (sm) says, who makes ablution properly and comes out to the mosque and attend the Jama-‘at, Allah will give him reward as such as the musalli, who has performed salat and is present from the beginning. He will never be paid virtues less than them at all.
(8) Musallis who come after the Jama-‘at, may perform salat in further Jama-‘at with iqamat. If he is alone, then another musalli (who performed salat before) may join with him to make Jama-‘at and to avail its merit as nafl. But it should not be justified regularly for local musallis to come after the jama- ‘at.
(9) He says, you go ahead to the front rows. Because who would remain always in back, Allah will remain them in back (from His blessings)’. In another statement there comes that, ‘Allah will move them back to the Hell.
Forbidden places of salat :
Narrated from Abu Sa‘eed Khudri (R), the prophet (sm) said that, ‘all the earth is the place for prostration to Allah, save and except the graveyards and the bathrooms’. The hadeeth of seven places, in which the salat is forbidden is Za‘eef.
6. Conditions of salat (شروط الصلاة)
Some matters outside of salat, without which salat will not be perfect, are called ‘the conditions of salat’. Those are nine :
(1) The musalli must be a Muslim. (2) Must be possessor of knowledge. (3) Attainment of age, for which beginning the salat at the age of seven. (4) Body, clothes and place of salat must be clean.  (5) To cover the Satar (i.e. the hidden parts of the body) as for the male to cover shoulders and the lower part of the body from the navel to the knees and for ladies to cover entire body except two palms and the face.  (6) To be proper the time of salat. (7) Must be clean by taking ablution, bath or Taiyammum (Maidah-6) (8) Must be facing the Qibla (the holy Ka‘ba of Makkah). (9) Determination (Niyat) for salat. 
Four principles of Shari ‘ah regarding dress code and Satar to be followed:
(1) The aim of wearing dress must be to cover up the body. So that in spite of wearing dress, the hidden parts of the body may not be visible to others. (2) To be Allah-fearing in ins and outs. So, one should wear loose, gentle and clean dresses. To wear white dress is directed by the Prophet (sm). (3) The dress should not be similar to the dress of non-muslims. (4) Should not show any sort of misuse and pride. This is why the males must not wear silk and gold and must not keep the dress beneath their ankles.
To use head-dress is a custom among the most of all nation of the world from the ancient ages and among the Arabs also it was prevailed. Allah says, خُذُوْا زِيْنَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ ‘Take your adornment while praying’ (A‘raf 7/31). So that the wearing of best dress with head-dress like cap, headgear was the practice of the prophet (sm) and His disciples. This was the usual practice of the Arabs from the past as their civilized dress. Islam did not reject it. But to use head-dress among the adornment of the muslim. The Prophet (sm) would use cap and use headgear with & without cap.  His disciples would move free-head also.
Hasan Basri said, the disciples of the Prophet (sm) would prostrate on their headgear or on the cap from the furious heat of the sun. The Prophet (sm) would use long towel also for any case of emergency.  But He or His disciples would not in habit of this. Rather the disciple Anas (R) and others would dislike it severely, as it was the usual habit of the Jews of Khaibar, who were the great enemy of Islam.  There stated in hadeeth that just before the Day of Resurrection, the Dajjal will come and seventy thousands of Jews will accompany with him with long towels (الطَيَالِسَة) on their head’.  There is seen the pervasion of use of long towels ‘Aba’ (العَبَاءُ) as head-dress among the Arabs, which is considered as civilized dress from ancient ages. But in salat it is not known that the Prophet (sm) and His disciples would ever use it. Rather it is shown that the attention is drawn to fix it more than to the salat and there is most probability of ‘Ria’ in it.
There is no obligation about the measurement and colour of headgear. The Prophet (sm) would use headgear of black colour.  While the great Tabe‘ii scholar, one of the famous seven Faqeehs of Madina, Kharejah (d. 99 A. H.) bin Zaid bin Thabit (R) would use headgear of white colour’. It is indespensible for the women to cover their whole body with head except their face & two palms’.
So, to obey the order of Allah narrated before, it is necessary to wear best dress in Salat, which is usually prevailed in the related country without offending the basic principles of Islamic dress-code stated above. Allah knows the best.
It is prevailed among the people by the name of hadeeth about the merits of wearing headgear, that (1) ‘Two rak‘ats ofsalat with headgear is better than 70 rak‘ats of salat without it’ (2) ‘One salat with headgear is equal to 25salats without it’ (3) ‘There are 10 thousand virtues in salat with headgear’ (4) ‘One jum‘ah with headgear is equal to 70jum‘ah without headgear’ (5) ‘The angels would be present at the day of juma‘h with headgear and used to make Doa for themusallis till sunset who wear the headgear’ (6) ‘Some special angels are deputed by Allah on the doors of jame‘ mosques in the day ofjum‘ah, who are used to pray to Allah seeking mercy for those who wear the headgear of white colour’. 
All these things in the name of hadeeth are spurious and baseless. Beside these there are another so-called hadeeth and others are popular in society in the merits of headgear. Allah-fearing muslims should refrain from these. Now a days it is seen differences and discriminations in the cap, headgear and veil of the muslims male and female. In this matter all should always be aware of that, these dresses would not be similar to the non-muslims and to the mushriks (polytheists) & bid‘atis (innovators) among so-called muslims.
7. Rukans of Salat (أركان الصلاة)
‘Rukn’ means the ‘pillar'. These are indispensable matters. If these are not performed wilfully or out of mistake, the salat will be nul & void. These are seven:
(1) Qiam (standing position): Allah says, وَقُوْمُوْا ِللهِ قَانِتِيْنَ ‘And you stand devoted before Allah’. (Baqarah 2/238).
(2) Takbeer-i-Tahreemah: That is raising of two hands up to shoulder or ears with utterance of ‘Alla-hu Akbar’ (i.e. Allah is greatest). As Allah says, وَلِرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ ‘Shout takbeer for your Lord’ (Muddaththir 74/3). That means, you declare His greatness. The Prophet (sm) says, تَحْرِيْمُهَا التَّكْبِيْرُ وَتَحْلِيْلُهَا التَّسْلِيْمُ- ‘through takbeer everything becomes prohibitted in Salat and through Salam everything becomes lawful.
(3) Reading of sura Fatiha : The Prophet (sm) says, لاَ صَلاَةَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَقْرَأْ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ ‘La Sala-ta liman lam Yaqra’ bi Fa-tihatil Kita-b’ (The salat of that person is not proper, who does not recite sura Fatiha).
(4 & 5) Performance of Ruku and Sijdah : Allah says, يَا اَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا ارْكَعُوْا وَاسْجُدُوْا ‘Oh believers! You bend your heads (in ruku) and lay in prostration (in sijdah)’ (Hajj 22/77).
(6) Ta ‘deel-i-Arkan (performing salat in a slow and devotional mood):
عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَدَخَلَ رَجُلٌ فَصَلَّى فَسَلَّمَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَرَدَّ وَقَالَ ارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ فَرَجَعَ وَيُصَلِّيْ كَمَا صَلَّى ثُمَّ جَاءَ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ ارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ- ثَلاَثًا، فَقَالَ وَالَّذِيْ بَعَثَكَ بِالْحَقِّ مَا أُحْسِنُ غَيْرَهُ فَعَلِّمْنِيْ ....
Abu Hurairah (R) says, ‘A person after his entrance into the mosque performs salat and then gives salam to the Prophet (sm). He said, you go back and perform salat, as because you did not perform it. So, he performed it three times but in every time he was refused by the Prophet (sm). Then the person said, ‘Oh Prophet (sm)! By the very holiness, who has sent you with truth, I can't perform better than it, so, please teach me how to perform salat’. (Thereafter He taught him to perform salat in very slow and devotional manner).  The hadeeth is famous as حديث مسيئ الصلاة ‘Hadeeth of the person who commits mistake in salat’.
(7) Qa‘da-i-Akheerah (last sitting):
Umme Salamah (R) says, ‘During the days of the Prophet (sm) women used to attend salat in the mosque of the Prophet (sm) and they would stand up after ending the salat terning with salam, while the Prophet (sm) and other male musallis would remain sitting for some time. Thereafter, when the Prophet (sm) would stand they would also stand. It proves that the general practice of the Prophet (sm) and of Sahabis was to sit at the last and to turn into salam after sitting.
This is to note that for the cause of grave illness or for any other practical reason if some one fails to perform those rukans, then he will perform salat either sitting or in lying position with beckoning. But in any circumstances, salat is not to be exempted.
8. Wajibs of salat (واجبات الصلاة)
‘Wajib’ is second to Rukan, which is compulsory. If abstains wilfully, then the salat will be void. But if abstains out of mistake, then he will have to give a ‘Saho Sijdah’ (i.e. corrective prostration). These are eight:
1. Other takbeers than takbeer-i-tahreemah.
2. To recite Tasbeeh in the ruku. At least saying ‘Subha-na Rabbial ‘Azeem’. 
3. To utter ‘Sami‘alla-hu liman Hamidah’ during Qawmah (standing) after ruku (bending). 
4. To recite the Doa of Qawmah as ‘Rabbana Lakal Hamd Or Alla-humma Rabbana Lakal Hamd. 
5. To recite Tasbeeh at the prostration, saying at least Subha-na Rabbial A‘la.
6. Sitting calmly in between two sijdahs and reciting Doa. Such as saying at least ‘Rabbigh firlee’ two times. 
7. To sit at first sitting and to read ‘Tashahhud’.
8. Completion of salat by turning with salam.
9. Sunnats of salat (سنن الصلاة)
All the practices of salat besides Farz and Wajib are called Sunnat. Such as, (1) To say salats of day-time silently except Farz salat of jum‘ah and to say all Farz salats of night loudly. (2) Saying A‘oozu billah...’ before qira-’at in the first rak‘at. (3) All the Doas that are to be read in salat. (4) Placing hands on the chest. (5) Perform‘Raf‘ul Yadayn’ i.e. raising hands up to the shoulder level at the standing after ruku. (6) Pronouncement of ‘Ameen’ after ending sura Fatiha. (7) Placing hands on the earth first at the time of going to the prostration. (8) To make ‘Jalsa-i-Istirahat’ (sitting for rest a while just before standing from sitting). (9) Rising up by pressing two hands on the ground. (10) Keeping the sight at the place of prostration while standing in salat. (11) To close fist the right hand like the shape of 53 in Bengali number at the time of ‘Tashahhud’ and continue to move the fore-finger. And besides that all legal practices in salat other than Farz & Wajibs.
10. Acts that nullify the salat (مفسدات الصلاة)
1. Eating or drinking something wilfully during salat.
2. Wilfully speaking for a reason other than required for salat.
3. Wilfully doing excess actions (العمل الكثير) which may seem that he is not in devotion of salat.
4. Abstinence of any rukn or condition of salat wilfully or without reason.
5. Laughing too much during salat.
11. Times of salat (مواقيت الصلاة)
It is compulsory to perform salat at the appointed five times fixed by Allah. As He says, إِنَّ الصَّلاَةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوْتًا ‘Verily the salat is enjoined on the believers at fixed times’ (Nisa 4/103). Just after the day of being Farz the five times of salat in the night of Mi‘raj, Jibreel (A) comes at the time of Zuhr Prayer and the prophet (sm) performs five salats in five times by his leadership at the early times in the first day and at the latest times in the next day, standing on the side of Maqam-i-Ibraheem in the Ka‘ba premise and fixes the preferable times of salat ‘between these two’ for the Prophet (sm). But the Prophet (sm) has considered salat at earlier time as the best of all virtuous deeds. The times of salat as below :
(1) Fajr (Early morning): It is from Subhe Sadiq (i.e. early dawn) till rising of the sun. The Prophet (sm) always used to perform Fajr salat in ‘ghalas’ i.e. the darkness of the dawn. Only in one occasion in his life he performed Fajr salat in ‘Isfar’ i.e. when everything becomes visible before the sunrise. This was His usual practice till His death. Therefore, it is better to perform Fajr salat in ghalas.
(2) Zuhr (Noon) : The time of Zuhr starts when the sun crosses the meridian and ends when the shade of any object becomes one time of its own. 
(3) ‘Asr (After noon) : The time of ‘Asr starts after the shade of any object becomes one time of its own and ends when it becomes two times. But ‘Asr salat is valid up to the crimson glow of the sky before sunset.
(4) Maghrib (Evening) : The time of Maghrib starts immediately after the sun sets and ends with the ending of redness of the sun. 
It is better to perform Zuhr a bit later during the scorching summer and ‘Esha a bit earlier during the shivering winter. But if it is not troublesome, the ‘Esha salat is better to be performed after the early 3rd part of the night. 
Prohibited times of salat:
It is not proper to start salat just at the time of sunrise, at noon and at sunset. Similarly, there is no salat after ‘Asr till Maghrib and after Fajr till sunrise. But at this time, the due salats may be said.  On the light of different hadeethes, many scholars say as valid ‘the salats for reasons’ even during the prohibited times. Such as the salat of Tahiatul Masjid, Tahiatul Ozu, salat of solar eclipse, salat of Janazah etc. The Jum‘a salat is permissible just at noon. In the same way the salat and Tawaf i.e. circumambulation around the holy Ka‘ba is permissible round the clock.
 . الصلاة اي الدعاء والرحمة والاستغفار، صلي صلاة اي دعا، عبادة فيها ركوع و سجود Al-Qamoosul Muheett p. 1681.
 . مِفْتَاحُ الصَّلاةِ الطُّهُورُ وَتَحْرِيمُهَا التَّكْبِيرُ وَتَحْلِيلُهَا التَّسْلِيمُ -Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Daremi. Mishkat, Ch: 3, ‘Cleanness’, H/312; Muslim, Mishkat, Ch: 4, ‘Salat’ H/791. Para: 10, ‘Description of salat’.
 . Ghafir/Mumin 40/55; Mir‘at 2/269.
 . Muslim H/685; Abu Daud H/1198; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/211.
 . Muzzammil 73/20; Tafseer Qurtubi.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat H/5862-65, Ch: 29, ‘Fazail & Shamail’ Para: 6, Mi‘raj.
 . Abu Daud H/391, 393, Ch: 2, Salat, Para: 1.
 . Jum‘ah 62/9; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1354, Para: 42, Jum‘ah.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/227.
 . See saheeh ibnu Khuzaimah, Ch: salat, Para: 2; Nasaii, Ch: 5, salat, Para: 3.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat, H/1772, Ch: 6 ‘Zakat’, Sec: 1.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat, H/5862-65 Ch: ‘Fazail & Shamail’, Para: 6, ‘M‘iraj’.
 . Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/29 (...عموده الصلاة...) Ch: 1, ‘Iman’.
 . مُرُوا أَوْلاَدَكُمْ بِالصَّلاَةِ وَهُمْ أَبْنَاءُ سَبْعِ سِنِينَ وَاضْرِبُوهُمْ عَلَيْهَا وَهُمْ أَبْنَاءُ عَشْرِ سِنِيْنَ وَفَرِّقُوْا بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ -Abu Daud H/247, Mishkat H/572, Ch: 4, ‘Salat’ Sec: 2.
 . Mariam 19/59 ((فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا
 . The discussion of salat has been made in the Quran at least in 82 places. Al-Mu‘jamul Mufahras Li Alfa-zil Qura-nil Kareem (Beirut : 1987).
 . Baqarah 2/238-39, Nissa 4/101-03.
 & 35. عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ الْبَاهِلِيِّ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: لَتُنْقَضَنَّ عُرَى الْإِسْلاَمِ عُرْوَةً عُرْوَةً فَكُلَّمَا انْتَقَضَتْ عُرْوَةٌ تَشَبَّثَ النَّاسُ بِالَّتِيْ تَلِيهَا وَأَوَّلُهُنَّ نَقْضًا الْحُكْمُ وَآخِرُهُنَّ الصَّلاَةُ Ahmad, Saheeh Ibnu Hibban; Albani, Saheeh At-Targheeb Wat-Tarheeb H/569; Albani, Saheeh Jame‘ Sagheer H/5075, 5478.
36. عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ حُكَيْمٍ عَنْ أَبِيْ هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: أَوَّلُ مَا يُحَاسَبُ بِهِ الْعَبْدُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ الصَلاَةُ ، فَإِنْ صَلَحَتْ صَلَحَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ، وَإِنْ فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ سَائِرُ عَمَلِهِ-ِ Tabarani Awsatt, At-Targheeb wat Tarheeb, H/369; Albani, Silsila Saheehah, H/1358, Abu Daud H/864-66; Nasaii, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/1330, Para : 40, ‘Salatut Tasbeeh’.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat H/5862-65, Para: Mi‘raj; Nisa 4/103.
 . عَنْ جَابِرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللهِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: بَيْنَ الرَّجُلِ وَبَيْنَ الشِّرْكِ وَالْكُفْرِ تَرْكُ الصَّلاَةِ- = Muslim H/134, Ch: ‘Iman’; Do. Mishkat H/569 Ch: 4, Salat; Ibnu Majah H/1080.
 . عَنْ عَلِيِّ قَالَ كَانَ آخِرُ كَلاَمِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الصَّلاَةُ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ
Ibnu Majah, H/2698, Ch: ‘Wasiats’; Abu Daud H/5156, Ch: ‘Good manners’, Para: 133.
 . Ahmad H/6576, ‘Hasan’; Daremi H/2721, ‘Saheeh’; Mishkat H/578, Ch: 4, Salat; Sanad ‘jayid’. but Albani opined lastly as ‘Za‘eef’ (Taraju‘a-t H/29).
 . Molla Ali Qari Hanafi, Mirqatul Mafateeh sharah Mishkatul Masabeeh (Delhi, N.D.) P. 2/118.
 . Ibnul Qayim, Assalat wa hukmu Ta-rikiha (Beirut : Dar Ibnu Hazm, 1st edn. 1416/1996), P. 63; Syed Sabiq, Fiqhus Sunnah (Qairo: 1412/1992) P. 1/72.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/569; Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/574, 580; Mir‘at 2/274, 279.
 . Tirmizi, Mishkat H/579; Mir‘at 2/283.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Bukhari, Mishkat H/5573-74; Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Miskhat H/5598-5600, Ch: 28, ‘Circumstances of the Day of judgement’ Para: 4, ‘The river & recommendation’.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/5585, Ch: 28, Para: 4.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/73; Shawkani, Naylul Awtar (Cairo: 1398/1978), P. 2/13.
 . Naylul Awtar 2/15; Mirqat 2/113-14.
 . Nayl 5/47-48, Ch: Jihad. Para: Janazah for the person died of death punishment; Ahmad, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/4011; Za-dul Ma‘ad (Beirut : 1416/1996) P. 3/98; Albani, Talkheesu Ahkamil Janaiz, P. 44; Muslim H/2262 (978), Ch: 11, Janaiz, Para: 37; Bulooghul Maram H/542.
 . Ibnu Katheer, Tafseer Ankaboot 29/45.
 . Ahmad H/9777; Baihaqi-Shu‘ab, Mishkat H/1237, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 33, To encourage for night salat; Mir‘at 4/235.
 . Muslim, Mishkat, H/564, Ch: 4, Salat.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/565.
 . Ahmad H/6576, ‘Hasan’; Daremi H/2721, ‘Saheeh’; Mishkat- Albani H/578, Ch: 4, Salat; Sanad ‘jayid’. but Albani opined lastly as ‘Za‘eef’ (Taraju‘a-t H/29).
 . Tabarani, Baihaqi, Albani- Saheehul Jame‘ H/1671.
 . Muslim, Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/624-25. Para: 3, Merits of salat.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/626.
 . Tirmizi, Mishkat H/635.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/627.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Malek, Nasaii, Mishkat H/570.
 . Bukhari H/6502, Ch: 81, To soften the heart, Para: 38, Politeness; Mishkat H/2266, Ch: 9, Doas, Para: 1.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/696, Para: 7, Mosques & places of salat.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/698.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/699.
 . Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/1066, Para: 23, Jama-‘at & its merits.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/701. Para: 7. ‘Mosques and places of salat’.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/692; Ibnu Majah H/1406; Ahmad H/14735; Saheehul Jame‘ H/3838.
 . Ibnu Majah H/1413; Do, Mishkat H/752.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/697, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 7.
 . Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/737.
 . Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/718-19, Para: 7. ‘Mosques and places of salat’.
 . Ibnu Majah H/1414; Bukhari H/917-19; Fathul Bari 2/462-63, Ch: 11, Jum‘ah, Para: 26, Khutba on the pulpit.
 . Sura Nisa 4/48, 116.
 . Mir‘at 2/428.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/4489, 92, Ch: 22, Dress, Para: 4, the pictures.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/948, 1126; Muslim, Mishkat H/1092.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat H/1059-60.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/2374, Ch: 9, Doas.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/704.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/1089.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/706.
 . Ibnu Majah H/1429; Abu Daud H/862.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/693.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/3685, Ch: 18, leadership & Judjement.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/2728, Ch: 10, ‘Manasik’, Para: 15.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/702,1052; Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/1066. There have made understand comparative importance of salat in the mosque and house and market. It is clear that the more virtues of 25 or 27 times is fixed for salat in jama-‘at in the mosque only. Moreover the salat in the house is beekhr than the salat in the market. Such as the salat in jama-‘at in the house or in the market is better than the salat alone there. See Mir‘at. P. 2/409; Tabarani, Bazzar, Saheeh At-Targheeb H/411-12; Mir‘at, commentary of H/1073, 3/510.
 . Bukhari & Muslim, Mishkat H/1053, Para: 23, Jama-‘at & its merits.
 . Ahmad, Daremi, Tabarani, Mishkat H/1101, Para: 24, To straighten the rows; Saheehul Jame‘ H/1839.
 . Nasaii H/661; Saheehul Jame‘ H/1842.
 . Mutaffaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/628, Para: 3, Merits of Salat.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/630, Para: 3.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/629; Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/1066; Mir‘at 3/508.
 . Tirmizi H/241. Do. Mishkat H/1144, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 28, Section: 2.
 . Mir‘at 4/102.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Nasaii, Mishkat H/1067, Para: 23, Jama-‘at & its merits.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1131; Muslim, Mishkat H/1072, Para: 7 & 23.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/1058, Para: 23, Jama-‘at & its merits.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/1044, Para: 22, ‘Prohibited times of salat’.
 . Tirmizi H/591; Abu Daud H/506, Mishkat H/1142; Saheehul Jame‘ H/261.
 . Abu Daud H/564; Do, Mishkat H/1145, Ch: 4, Salat, Para: 28, Section: 2.
 . Abu Daud H/574, Para: 56, ‘To conduct further jama-‘at in the same mosque’; Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/1146, Para: 28.
 . Muslim, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/1090, 1104, Para: 24, To straighten the rows.
 . اَلْأَرْضُ كُلُّهَا مَسْجِدٌ إِلاَّ الْمَقْبَرَةَ وَالْحَمَّامَ Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Daremi, Mishkat H/737, Para: 7 ‘Mosques and the places of salat’.
 . Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/738; Albani, Irwa H/287; Za‘eeful Jame‘ H/3235.
 . وَمَن يَّبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلاَمِ دِينًا فَلَن يُّقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ A-le Imran 3/85; Tawbah 9/17.
 .رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلاَثَةٍ : عَنِ النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ وَعَنِ الصَّبِيِّ حَتَّى يَحْتَلِمَ وَعَنِ الْمَجْنُونِ حَتَّى يَعْقِلَ Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/3287, Ch: 13, Marriage, Para: 11, ‘khola‘ & Talaq’. Nayl. Ch: ‘Salat’ P. 2/23-24.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/572; Nayl. 2/22.
 . Maidah 5/6, A‘raf 7/31, Muddaththir 74/4; Muslim, Mishkat H/2760, Ch: Business; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Daremi, Mishkat H/737,739, Para: 7.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/125; Nayl 2/136; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/755, Ch: 4, ‘Salat’; Sura Noor 24/31; Abu Daud H/4104, Ch: Dress, Para: 34; Shamsul Haq Azeemabadi, ‘Awnul Ma‘bood (Cairo: Maktaba ibnu Taiymiah, 3rd Edition 1407/1987) H/4086.
 . إِنَّ الصَّلاَةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوْتًا Nisa 4/103.
 . فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوْا وُجُوْهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ Baqarah 2/144.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih. 1st Hadeeth of Saheeh Bukhari & Mishkat. The narrator is Umar ibnul khattab (R). The recitation of Niyat is an innovation (Bid‘at) except the recitation loudly in Talbiah for Hajj & ‘Umrah. It is not known that the Prophet (sm) or Sahabis, Tabe‘iis or the past Imams of Ahlus Sunnah have recited Niyat or they have directed any one to recite it. Burhanuddeen Margheenani (511-593 A.H.), the Author of ‘Hidayah’ the famous book of Hanafi fiqh and some other scholars of next time has opined that the recitation of Niyat with determination is ‘good’. The text as follows: النية هى الإرادة والشرط أن يعلم بقلبه أيّ صلاة يصلي، أما الذكر باللسان فلا معتبر به ويحسن لاجتماع عزيمته- ‘Niyat means Determination. But condition is that the Musalli will determine by his heart which salat he will perform. Recitation of Niyat has no validity, but it is ‘good’ to unify the determination (that is the determination with recitation)’. =Hidayah (Deoband, India 1416 A.H.), 1/96, Ch: ‘The conditions of salat’.
Famous Hanafi scholars like Molla Ali Qari, Ibnul Humam, Abdul Hai lacknawi have called it as Bid‘at (See Mirqat (Delhi, N.D) 1/40-41; Hidayah (Deoband) 1/96, F,N. 13). With other countries among most of the Muslims in the Indian sub-continent, the recitation of Niyat by saying ‘Nawaitu un Usallia’ is in vogue, which has no basis in Shari‘ah. While from the beginning to the end of salat is well-restricted by the revelation (wahi) of Allah. There is no room for Rai & Qias (i. e. Analogy & Deduction) in it. So the recitation of Niyat is not a good thing, but an innovation in Shari‘ah, which must be given up. In fact, many men are fared of salat for bearing extra trouble of memorizing and reciting the Arabic Niyat. So there is most probability of salat that will be nul & void, if he recites the Niyat with error. Rather who compel a musalli to recite the Niyat, they give verdict (Fatwa) that who will recite sura Fatiha in salat behind the imam, his mouth should be filled with soil or should be bitten with stone. (see the book namely ‘The salat of a Hanafi in the light of saheeh hadeeth’ p.p. 13-14 by Mufti Abdul Quddoos and Mufti Syed Nazrul Islam.) This Hadeeth is Za‘eef (Albani, Irwaul ghaleel H/503). Rather there is clear direction of the prophet (sm) to read sura Fatiha in every salat.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/3524 Ch: 16, ‘Qisas’ Para: 2.
 . A‘raf 7/26; Muslim, Mishkat H/5108, Ch: 25, Good manners, Para: 20, ‘Anger & pride’; Tirmizi, Mishkat, H/4350 Ch: 22, Dress; Ahmad, Nasaii, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/4337.
 . Ahmad, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/4347, Ch: 22, Dress.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Bukhari, Mishkat H/4311-14, 4321, Ch: 22, Dress; Abu Daud, Mishkat H/4346.
 . Silsila Za‘eefah H/2538, See at the end of commentary.
 . Za-dul Ma‘a-d 1/130.
 . Muslim H/2138 Ch: Janaiz, Para: 7, ‘Nursing of the patient’.
 . Bukhari, Ta‘leeq. H/385, Ch: Salat, Para: 23.
 . Bukhari H/5807, Ch: Dress, Para: 16.
 . Za-dul Ma‘a-d 1/136-37.
 . Muslim H/7392/2944, Ch: 52, Fitan, Para: 25.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/210, Ch: 2, Ilm, Sec: 1.
 . Muslim, Mishkat H/1410, Ch: 45, Sermon & Salat of the Jum‘ah; Ibnu Majah H/2821-22, Ch: Jihad, Para: 22.
 . Tabaqat Ibnu Sa‘d (Beirut : Dar Sader 1405/1985) P. 5/262.
 . Noor 24/31; Abu Daud, Mishkat H/4372, Ch : Dress.
 . Albani, Silsila za‘eefah wal Mouzoo‘ah H/127-29, 395.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/312 Ch: 3, Cleanness. Para:1, ‘Which makes the ozu as wajib’; Muslim, Mishkat, H/791 Ch: 4, ‘Salat’ Para:10 ‘Description of Salat’.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/822, Ch: 4, ‘Salat’ Para:12, ‘Reciting in salat’. Narrator Ubadah bin Samit (R). See all other books of Hadeeth along with Kutub-i-Sittah.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/790; Para: 10. ‘Description of salat’.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/948, Para: 17. ‘Doa in Tashahhud’.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/1248; Para: 34, ‘To follow middle course in deeds’. Tabarani Kabeer, Saheehah H/323.
 . Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, ‘the Arkan of Salat and Wajibat’. Adopted from Majmu‘a Rasa-il Fissalat’ (Darul ifta, Riadh. 1405 A. H.) P. 78.
 . Bukhari, Muslim & others, Mishkat H/799, 801. Para: 10; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/120.
 . Nasaii, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat, H/881. Para: 13, Ruku.
 . Bukhari, Muslim, Mishkat H/870, 74, 75, 77.
 . Bukhari H/732-35, 738; Ch: Azan. Para: 82, 83 & 85; Muslim H/868, Ch: Salat; Muslim H/904, 913; Ch: Salat.
 . Nasaii, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/881, Para: 13, ‘Ruku’.
 . Ibnu Majah H/897; Abu Daud H/850, Tirmizi H/284; Nasaii H/1145; Mishkat, H/900, 901 Para: 14, ‘Sijdah & its merit’; Nayl 3/129; Majmu‘a Rasa-il P. 78.
 . Ahmad, Nasaii, Nayl 3/140; Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/909 Para:15 Tashahhud.
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/312 Ch: 3, ‘Cleanness’ Para:1, ‘Which makes the ozu as wajib’; Abu Daud, Nasaii, Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/950-51. Para:17, Doa in Tashahhud; Fiqhus Sunnah P. 1/106.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/205.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/5862-63, Ch: 29, Fazail & Shamail. Para: 6, Mi‘raj; Naylul Awtar 2/28.
 . (الوَقْتُ مَا بَيْنَ هَذَيْنِ الْوَقْتَيْنِ) Abu Daud H/393; Tirmizi H/149; Do, Mishkat H/583; Muslim Mishkat H/582, Para:1, ‘The times of salat’. Naylul Awtar 2/26.
 . سُئِلَ النَّبِىُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: أَىُّ الْأَعْمَالِ أَفْضَلُ ؟ قَالَ: الصَّلاَةُ لِأَوَّلِ وَقْتِهَا- Ahmad, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/607. Para: 2, ‘Salat in earlier’; Daraqutni H/956-57.
 . Abu Daud H/394, from Abu Mas‘ood Ansari (R), Nayl. P. 2/75. In another hadeeth the Prophet (sm) Says, أَسْفِرُوا بِالْفَجْرِ فَإِنَّهُ أَعْظَمُ لِلْأَجْرِ ‘Do your Fajr Prayer in visible morning, because that is the best time for earning virtue’. (Tirmizi, Abu Daud, Mishkat H/614). Sayed Sabiq says, It means, to enter salat in ghalas and come out at isfar. That is you do long your qira-’at till the Fajr be visible and get yourself out after ending the salat, as the Prophet (sm) used to do it (Abu Daud H/393). He recites in the Fajr Prayer sixty to hundred verses. Or the meaning of Hadeeth would be that you would be sure about the time of Fajr and don’t pray it on the basis of assumption. (Tirmizi H/154, See commentary; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/80). Albani says that, it means to begin salat of Fajr at the ghalas and to come out after finishing it at the isfar’ (Irwa 1/287).
 . Muslim, Mishkat, H/581. Para:1, ‘The times of salat’; Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/583. Imam Abu Yusuf & Muhammad and Imam Abu Haneefah (Rh) in his one verdict have supported this time of Zuhr, which is narrated in saheeh hadeeth (Hidayah 1/81. Ch: Salat, Para: ‘Times’).
 . Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/583; Nayl 2/34-35; Para: ‘the preferable and last time of ‘Asr.
Famous four Imams and Abu Yusuf & Muhammad (Rh), the two renowned disciples of Abu Haneefah (Rh) have supported this time. But Imam Abu Haneefah (Rh) in his another verdict has supported the time of ‘Asr starts after the shade of any object becomes two times of its own on the basis of Hadeeth, ‘cool down the Zuhr’. Because the furious sunray of the summer is part of heat of the Hell’. (Hidayah 1/81).
The cause was that ‘once in an expedition, when Belal (R) was about to give Iqamat for the jama‘at of Zuhr after Azan, the prophet (sm) said to him ‘cool down the Zuhr’. That means ‘delay sometime’. In another statement it was said that ‘cool down the salat. Because the furious sunray of the summer is part of heat of the Hell’ (Tirmizi from Abu Zar (R), H/157-58; Tuhfa H/158. Ch: Salat, Para: 119; Abu Daud H/401-02).
In that Hadeeth there are two things: (1) The time of journey was in the summer, where the performing of Zuhr salat in heated open air on the desert land was practically very difficult. But in resident in general weather or in a mosque with roof, fan and AC how this direction is applicable? (2) It was the summer season. But in winter season, when the sunray of the noon is delicious, how will be the direction in that time? So how it would be proper to start ‘Asr salat after last time, being the shade two times of its own, by the plea of a Hadeeth caused with a temporary problem of emergency, keeping aside the preferable time of ‘Asr when the shade will be one to two times of its own as the Saheeh Hadeeth narrated by ibnu Abbas and Jaber (R)? But the simple meaning of that Hadeeth of Abu Zar (R) is that in the time of temporary heated sunny day the Zuhr salat will perform delayed sometime from its earliest time. Now if we consider the another verdict of Imam Abu Haneefah (Rh) and show honour to the saheeh Hadeeth and to the verdicts of famous three Imams and two honoured disciples of Imam Abu Haneefah (Rh) and then if we consider the time of ‘Asr salat from after the shade would be one time of its own, then the Muslim Ummah could be united at least in this ground.
 & 151. Muslim, Mishkat H/581, Ch: 4, salat, Para: 1, The times.
 . Muslim H/1562 (681/311) Ch: 5, Mosques, Para: 55, To say due salats, from Abu Qatadah; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/79.
 . Bukhari, Mishkat H/590-91, Para-2, To say salat earlier; Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibnu Majah, Mishkat H/611; Fiqhus Sunnah, Para: Time of Zuhr. 1/76.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Muslim, Mishkat H/1039-40; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/81-83.
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1041, Para: 22, ‘Prohibited times’
 . Muttafaq ‘Alaih, Mishkat H/1043; Saheeh Ibnu Khuzaimah H/1277.
 . Fiqhus Sunnah 1/82.
 . Tuhfatul Ahwazi Sharah Tirmizi, See commentary of H/183, 1/541; Fiqhus Sunnah 1/82.
 . Nasaii, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Mishkat H/1045, Para: 22, Prohibited times.